Capital Airlines and Vikants Vickers Armstrons

Three major airlines that have been inkubavanyya in Pennsylvania, became Capital airlines, as well as the "Eastern United States and American ways."

Created Clifford Pier, car dealer in Hudson Esekse, it was conceived in 1919, when the plane Stensana, which he views while flying at an exhibition, aroused his interest in aviation. Together bought 40 hectares of land that have been used for airfield excursions in Dravasburgu with D. Cake Bar in 1925, he invested 35,000 dollars to build the airport Pittsburgh McKeesport, clearing the land and built a small shed with a gun before being opened to take in June.

Carrying out their own sightseeing flights for which passengers paid $ 5.00, it is next year began airfield school and periodically conduct air shows, peraymenavavshy herbal airport in the Bettis Field in honor of Lieutenant Cyrus Bettsis, aeronautical pilot killed in Belfonte, Pennsylvania .

Leisure Service Ball, however, was quickly upgraded. After President Coolidge February 2, 1925 signed the Law of the Kelly Air Mail, which allowed the general postal administrations to enter into private contracts for the carriage of mail, for this he was awarded the shortest route of 121 miles. Continuing from Pittsburgh to Cleveland through Youngstown, Ohio, the route indicated by CAM (Air Air Contract) 11 was characterized by low operating costs; the maximum allowable rate of 3.00 dollars per pound; maximum compensation per ton mile; and significant about the & # 39; the volume of mail, and therefore made it the most profitable.

It operates in three Waco 9s, he opened the service April 21, 1927, peravozivshy 20,000 pounds of mail and flying more than 70,000 miles during the balance of the year. By 1928 these figures are respectively increased to 55,000 pounds and 85,000 miles.

Expanding fleet of Fairchilds, Ryans, Travel Airs and Waco 9's and 10's, which allowed him to gain additional profit of $ 20 per passenger by increasing the & # 39; volume cabins, they offer on trips scheduled.

Unlike other modern airlines, it received a positive growth, government revenue earning 291,000 dollars peravozivshy almost 100,000 pounds of mail and carrying out night flights between Pittsburgh and Cleveland in 1929, which helped the newly installed lighting respiratory way.

Prompted by this success and the necessary income from the sale Bettis Field Aircraft and Airways of America, Inc., he made it his full now a full-fledged airline, stretching his wings still small route. network to the east from Pittsburgh to Washington on August 14 of the same year.

Service for passengers accompanying the post, has been upgraded with the purchase of a single 12-Sedov Ford Trimotor in 1930, which allowed him to create a combined company postal and passenger services, designed Pennsylvania Air Lines, and tariff reductions in 2323 raised the total number of flights for 209,000 miles .

The ongoing work was short-lived. General postal master Walter Folger Brown, the intention to create a national air-mail system, sought to combine its current track, so in April 1930 Ball given six months extension period of the contract on the route Pittsburgh-Cleveland, until he was able to sell his young carrier. it is integrated with a larger operation.

The solution came in the form of Pittsburgh Aviation Industry Corporation (PAIC), a holding company created in 1928 to oversee aviation interests. By agreeing to purchase 8,000 shares at $ 10.00 per share, and October 24, 1930 PACC assumed Pennsylvania Airlines, which in this case was secured by the base to Cleveland in May 1934. Clifford Ball, at least temporarily, remained his vice-president and head of operations.

The newly established scheme of post office post office, which has replaced the pre-payment plan weight prompted to purchase larger, Shtynsana engines and Ford. Their increase in the area, combined with a reduction in the cost of travel has increased the number of passengers in 1931 to 100 per cent.

In fact, the new owners have recorded successful course. August 8, 1931, when it was embedded in the contract airmail sector Pittsburgh and Washington, he began service on him, in August, the three daily tourist trips up to Cleveland. fourth frequency was added two years later, and a passenger plane landed in Detroit.

But the acquisition and merger, once initiated, only distributed. Indeed, the progressive acquisition of shares PAIC with & # 39; yadali in the previously independent carriers until October 1, 1933 she became a subsidiary wholly owned, which caused the resignation of the founder.

After a bad incident and healthy army service Airmail postage general, in accordance with the law of Black Makkelara again I requested the application of private companies to reuse services, many of which have made it as a "new airlines." In fact, they were the original with new names. Former creation Bowl converted Pennsylvania airline and shipping company, Inc., was followed, but was granted only a short segment of the Detroit-Milwaukee, while Central Air Lines, she renamed the Pittsburgh Airways, is located at its former turf from Cleveland to Washington, due to its low prices by five per cent per mile.

However, the winning and the best deals are not necessarily the same. Indeed, the John D. and Richard B. Koulter sons of stone coal operator Grynsburga had to pour him half a million dollars of capital that sustains life.

Like its predecessor, it also carried passengers between Pittsburgh and Washington.

Sparks, like a plane flying on routes where the two participated as they tried to balance the figures, which fall on the one hand, due to lower revenues from the mail to those that grow out of the passenger revenue.

Pennsylvania Airlines, at least according to their statistics, has been successful. For example, in 1935, he has transported 44855 passengers and flown more than 1.6 million miles. Reducing the cost of travel and replacing obsolete aircraft quickly Stensana and Ford for ten Boeing 247D aircraft purchased in the United Airlines, he called at the tip in the form of land transport, such as trains, and received an explosive growth, the total number of 83.199 passengers and 2.9 million miles 1936.

Central carrying 11604 with a fleet of five Stynsana in 1935. But these figures tell only one side of the story.

Beaten financial foundation, created by reducing air mail revenues and destruction of the single market by two competing carriers, cited as his losses.

Consolidation of the two, provided of common remedies, entered into force on 1 November 1936, after it acquired the shares of Central Pennsylvania and manufacturing companies using district Airport Pittsburgh Alegheni as a base of operations to control the fight. , Meteorology and maintenance, has been redesigned Pennsylvania Central Airlines.

The momentum initiated by two independent carriers continued. Pittsburgh-Parkersburg Charleston (West Virginia) on April 8 and 26 October, the Washington-Baltimore-Harysburg Vilyamsport Buffalo – Next year two routes were provided.

Indeed, the momentum of traffic, when he was put in motion, it was impossible. Even in the next year were awarded four of the route on which it received 33.3 percent mile Pittsburgh, Buffalo, Washington, Norfolk, Grand Rapids (Michigan) and -Chikago Detroit Co-Sainte-Marie. A permanent certificate of convenience and the need to protect it from potential competitors.

Now, touching the key, industrially-concentrated city in the northeast, it quickly became one of the nation's largest regional airlines and made a profit in 1939.

Together with its ever-expanding network, which will soon also covered Erie, Knoxville, and Birmingham, the new equipment came from the & # 39. After receiving the first of ten Douglas DC-3 in the same year, he was able to offer higher bandwidth and comfort, but at the same time generates income that is independent from the passengers, he could not make them replaced with Boeing 247D. Peravezvshy 342,872 passengers in 1941, he flew nearly 6.5 million miles.

The Second World War made a significant, albeit temporary, mark on its operation, the CAA demanded that 16 of its 22 aircraft for troops and supplies of flights, while the agreement with the Chief of the air allowed to operate military cargo service from Washington to Chicago, Miami. and New Orleans. December 21, 1943 The flying sea transitional school "Roanoke" to provide pilot training was created.

He emerged from the clouds of war through which he flew a DC-3 and Lockheed Lodestars, moving 19,000 troops and more than 26 million pounds of cargo.

As a result, profitability and promote airliner in September 1944, was taken by an order for 10 million to 15 chatyrohvyadomyh DC-4 with a higher capacity, which will signal the transfer of the new headquarters and bases operational maintenance of the county airport in Washington reflects Allegini and its new name "PCA – Capital Airlines", emphasizing its already outgrown the status of regional carriers. It was fixed the same as December 16, 1945, after the US, the TWA and United, dedicated the fourth carrier civil aeronautics, which served as a desirable route from New York to Chicago, though initially through Pittsburgh and Detroit, December 16, 1945 the service was opened between the following two in July.

The service also noted the change in strategy. In order to remain competitive for low-cost airlines, and thus keep the passengers on the main carriers are under pressure to reduce the cost of travel. Central Pennsylvania, officially naming the "Capital Airlines" in 1948 substantiate this practice in OOP using the DC-4, uncompressed, with 60 seating configurations of higher density and simultaneously sitting in plain simple, to increase the use of aircraft, and, in conjunction with a reduction in comfort during the flight, it was possible to reduce the standard rate "six cents per mile" to four. These flights are in the "wind city" came to be called "the Nighthawk" 4 November of the same year of the original price in the same direction at 33.30 dollars.

Now the fifth-largest US airline, "Capital" tried to catch up with the "Big Four" by differentiating innovations and strive to do it using the new power plant technologies associated with the British design. Called Vickers-Armstrongs Viscount, he will give it a significant competitive advantage by offering improved speed, enhanced passenger comfort and reduced number of times. In fact, it would create a standard that others strive to achieve empire, to remain competitive, in other words, it has led, and others were to follow. But its strategy could be successful only if it would use a significant number of them to decorate its routing system.

And the number, as well as the height of the aircraft lift, increased rapidly: three were ordered in May 1954, 37 – in August, and another 20 – in line. It is not only heralds a new type of engine, it would be the first time that a British aircraft is operated in the United States since the biplane De Havilland DH.4.

Originally designed to fulfill the requirements IIIB Brabazon Committee, issued in March 1945, for a four-engine turbine aircraft for the transport of 24 passengers on short and medium range, mizhevrapeyskih sectors plane indicated V.609, after it has been revised to accommodate 32 to meet the British Airways & British; needs after he placed the order to launch.

Nizkakryly airliner sports thin pencils and oval windows first took to the skies July 16, 1948, but was again modified. Powered by four 1550 horsepower engines cowhide Rolls Royce Dart RDa3 and reduced Viscount 700, he turned pyatsifutovy wingspan and fuselage stretch to carry 40 to 53 passengers, flying for the first time in this manner, August 28, 1950.

Nevertheless, it was a prototype, reassigned V.630, carrying the world's first scheduled flight of the turbine this summer along with the BEA, which served the London, Paris and Edinburgh.

On the basis of the 1780-wn turbine Rolls Royce RDa6 Dart 510, V.700D, 83,8-foot total length and 93 ft long, 8.5-inch gap was 64.5 kg-weight. movement speed was 310 miles / mil and amounted to 20,000 feet, and the maximum amount of fuel was 2000 miles.

Then the best-selling British airliner of Viscount series, including a large capacity, the fuselage V.800, reached 444 sales.

June 16, 1955 Capital adopted its first viskontnuyu mail and put it into operation on July 16 carrying two machines daily and unique line frequency of the Washington-Chicago route. As expected, its advanced engine technology, higher speeds and shorter time to serve pie magnet, increasing its market share between any cities with which it is associated.

It took advantage of this fact, noting the progress of aircraft in their jackets, tickets, stating: "In your voyage … pilots will fly with radio Bendix For years Bendix Radio navigation and communication equipment has arrived with large airlines the world These electronic.. device driver is used to guide it in a straight direction and maintain radio contact with the ground an instant. ".

However, the Viscount was just one catalyst airline explosion. For the reasons given as "strengthening the individual carrier … for the reasonable development of the national system, which he enters," The Board of Civil Aviation in 1955 handed over the capital treasury airline route awards, which allow him to shed the predominantly north-eastern network at close range with which it was associated with early expansion, and proposed a non-stop segments from New York to Buffalo, Pittsburgh, Toledo, Detroit and Chicago. As the largest airline for passengers landing in Pittsburgh, it provided more than 600 000 passengers per year.

By the middle of 1957 three such quarters routing system guided airplanes Viscount, and next year some frequency pairs of cities have reached the size of the shuttle: New York-Chicago (16 daily, ten non-stop), New York, Detroit (15) New York-Pittsburgh (ten) and Washington-Chicago (ten).

However, while the fifth largest trunk was planted their wings Viscount, he was forced to make a dove, overestimated the cash flow that they had set up, and with which he could pay the debt before the Vickers -Armstrongs. Working 46 of them in 1956, he ordered another 15, and now on the way to its target 75. But he brought losses this year alone – and one that then.

Following the initiative of its strategy to attract passengers with the use of advanced technology and the highest speed seemed impossible and narrowly focused. Almost plunged into bankruptcy in 1958 as a mechanic strike, retain its purchasing strategy, ordering the world's first aircraft 14 aircraft, de Havilland DH.106 Comet- again designed by the British. – and then entered into negotiations with a four-engine Convair CV-880 aircraft, the more powerful and high-speed jet aircraft (about 100 miles / h) than even the Comet.

Nevertheless, for all the elements that have made the capital shine, equal the amount that caused him to spot: the growing debt, four accident at Viscount and retention of profitable routes in Florida TO. Despite the fact that he rented for this purpose 11 DC-6B in Pan American, he could not break their helical spiral, and forced her to take life-saving line, gives her United Airlines.

CAB, approved the application for the purchase of 1 June 1961, on the & # 39; united Pennsylvania and created the largest aircraft of the Western world, which served 116 destinations with 267 aircraft.

As soon as the viscount was repainted in the mirror, the name of the capital at the same time the airline has disappeared.

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